Business leaders, in response to fluctuating confidence indices, expressed caution and optimism for 2023.

They expect the economy to slow, but not to the degree where it falls into recession.

Confidence rose 1.8 per cent for consumers, but dipped 1.8 percent for businesses in the December 2022 fourth quarter, compared to the third quarter.

Businesses are largely concerned about crime, a lacklustre economy, inflation, the Russia-Ukraine war and its impact on shipping of supplies, less jobs, global economic trends, and continued COVID-19 infections.